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时间对比在托福写作中的应用

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 17-11-14
  • 编辑:朗阁小编

在托福考试中,写作相对来说是比较容易得分的一个单项。托福写作分为综合写作和独立写作。综合写作主要考查考生的阅读、听力和写作综合能力,对于听力比较好的考生来说,综合写作并不是特别难。

在托福考试中,写作相对来说是比较容易得分的一个单项。托福写作分为综合写作和独立写作。综合写作主要考查考生的阅读、听力和写作综合能力,对于听力比较好的考生来说,综合写作并不是特别难。

 

独立写作就是标准的议论文,对一个话题进行论述分析。独立写作涉及的范围更广一些,不仅包含了议论文写作的基本概念、框架结构、逻辑衔接,还包含了对各种话题的涉猎。总的来说,托福独立写作的题型主要包含了二选一、三选一、绝对词题、今昔对比题、事实现象题、以及should题。

 

虽然独立写作需要掌握的内容众多,但是对于绝大部分考生来说,如何充分论证一个观点的同时又具有很好的衔接关系是最大的一个难题。考生们写独立写作最大的共鸣就是没有那么多话好说。我们都知道,一篇议论文的论证方法有很多:举例论证,原因论证,结果论证,对比论证,假设论证,解释说明,数据支撑等等。但是如何针对不同题型有效应用这些论证方法是一大难题。

 

在上述论证方法中,对比论证在托福写作中应该是应用得比较多的一种论证方法,主要包含一件事物的正反对比,通常在二选一,三选一和should的考试题型中应用较为广泛。第二种对比思路是时间对比概念,即拿过去与现在对比,通常用于今昔对比题和有变化概念题中比较多,常用句型一般是:In the past… Nowadays, however,… 本文中,朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师将结合原创范文,重点分析对比论证中的时间对比概念在几种题型中的应用,希望能给广大考生们授之以渔。

 

1. 今昔对比题

今昔对比题应该是托福写作考试中的重点题型之一,TPO以及历年真题中都会出现很多这种题型的题目,通常会拿现在与过去进行比较,也会存在与将来进行比较。遇见这种题型的时候,考生可以用到时间对比的概念来论证解题。比如,我们可以看一看TPO上面的两道今昔对比考题。

 

TPO 34:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Educating children is a more difficult task today than it was in the past because they spend so much time on cell phone, online games, and social networking Web site. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

本题考的是现在教育孩子是不是比过去更难了,因为他们花大量时间在手机、网络游戏和社交网站上面。选择同意或者不同意都比较好回答,我们可以从学生、老师、科技等不同角度从过去到现在的变化来分析这道题。

 

To start with, history has seen a big leap in scientific development, which means teachers have to teach more knowledge to meet the standard of society. Children in ancient time learned only a few courses such as literature and masterpieces of some oracles. On the contrary, teachers have to teach students knowledge of all aspects such as physics, mathematics, chemistry, economics, etc. As the saying goes, “one person has to study hard for ten years”. Students nowadays take more than ten years to get education. So the more knowledge is, the more difficult it is to educate children.

从老师的角度来分析为什么教育孩子变难了,因为他们教的知识变多了。然后再从过去只需要教学生很少的课程与现在要教授学生各种各样的科目进行对比,再从过去只要寒窗苦读十年与现在要学习不止十年这样的长度进行对比。

 

What’s more, students in ancient time were more respectful to their teachers. Students were supposed to have good manners and obey whatever teaches say. Teachers could punish students if they did something wrong. But the fact is just the opposite currently. Students don’t respect their teachers as much as it is in the past or just obey them for fear. For instance, some students say something bad about their teachers for being punished or criticized. What’s even worse, I know some students knock at their teachers, which is unbelievable in ancient times. It is harder and harder for teachers to get students controlled.

从学生的角度来分析,为什么教育孩子变难了,因为学生自身特点发生了变化,学生不再像以前那样尊重老师了。以前的学生比较有礼貌,而且比较尊师重道,甚至老师可以惩罚学生。然而现在的学生因为受父母溺爱,不但不尊重老师,而且甚至会辱骂殴打老师,这让教育变得更加困难了。也是用时间对比概念很好地论述了中心论点。

 

TPO 28:

Do you agree or disagree with the following statement?

Parents today are more involved in their children's education than parents were in the past. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

本题也是一道比较明显的教育类今昔对比题,现在的父母比以前的父母更加关注参与孩子的教育了。在解这道题时,也可以从多角度进行解题分析。与过去相比,可以把父母关注孩子的教育进行分类讨论,分为哪些方面参与的更多,也可以从孩子与父母自身的变化来分析本题。

 

Above all, parents nowadays are more concerned about cultivating their children's interest which was not highly valued in the past. On the weekends and holidays, the after-class training courses are often filled with children whose parents pay for them to learn knowledge beyond textbooks. When I was young, I also had to learn plenty of lessons such as chess, writing, piano and so on. Unfortunately, I insist none of these things above when I grow up. However, my parents were really keen to let me do so then.

首先,与过去相比,现在的父母更加关注孩子的兴趣培养。论证的时候可以从以前与现在的社会竞争需求,对孩子培养的需求的变化来分析。当然单一的时间对比论证对一个点的论述肯定是不够的,要与其他论证思路进行结合。这里就可以结合自己的例子来分析。

 

Furthermore, parents today are stricter with their kids. They want them to learn what they think highly of. More and more students study abroad which is an unrealized dream of many parents. They have more hope on their kids because many of them have only one kid who is the only one that can make the condition of family better. It was opposite in the past when parents had so many kids that could not afford the expenses for all children to be educated. Take my aunts for instance. Though there are two kids of my grandparents, they could only afford to let my father go to the school. So they were very strict with my father and asked him to study more knowledge.

其次,现在的孩子都是独生子女,父母对孩子的期望更高了,也更加严格了。可以从以前的生活条件落后,只能维持温饱,一户人家孩子会有很多个,到现在的条件变好,父母望子成龙望女成凤的心理进行对比分析。

 

Last but not least, the information nowadays seems to expand more and more quickly and parents are more knowledgeable so that they can offer more help to their kids. In the past students just needed to learn harder and harder for the test. But on the contrary, nowadays students face more chances which may let them confused. For example, when choosing the majors and universities, parents can list the pros and cons which students do not know at all. What's more, parents are more experienced about some vital choices on one's road of growing up and they can make their kids have less chance of failure.

最后,从父母自身角度变化来分析,将以前的父母和现在的父母进行比较。以前的父母文化素养低,对孩子的学业并不懂并且也无法参与,现在的父母获取信息多,本身也具有文化,可以对孩子进行一定的指导。

 

2. change类考题

对于过去与现在的对比来说,涉及到change类字眼的题目都可以使用。相对来说,科技类的文章用得比较频繁。比如要说明科技对人们生活的改变,考生们可以写科技改变人们的通讯方式或者出行方式等等,然后就可以从过去的通讯方式或者出行方式以及现在的通讯方式、出行方式的改变进行比较。用时间对比论证方法时,要注意过去的时态以及相反的对比关系。我们可以看一道托福考试真题:

 

Choose one of the following transportation vehicles and explain why you think it has changed people’s lives: automobile, bicycles, airplanes. Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

本题的考点为三选一,选一种最能改变人们生活的交通方式:汽车,自行车和飞机。题目关键词是最能改变人们生活的,论点要围绕人们的生活来写,不能写得太偏离人们的生活。三种交通工具都有各自的优点,选择一种最好写最有特点的交通工具进行论述,其他的可以拿来做对比。

 

The world has been made smaller by airplanes. Compared with other vehicles, airplanes are able to cover great distances in less time. Ancient people may have had to consume several days or even weeks travelling by slower means before arriving at a faraway destination. As a result, our ancestor had very few opportunities to travel to different parts of their country, and world travel was unthinkable. Not everyone was as fortunate as the great traveler Marco Polo. Today, passengers can visit several distant cities within a single day. An increasing number of modern citizens have realized dreams to travel around the globe, and have done so by airplane.

看完考题的出题特点,既然是三选一,那么很自然会想到用对比论证来进行重点分析。范例选了飞机最能改变生活,因为可以缩短世界的距离。先简单用了正反对比将飞机和其他交通工具进行对比突出它的飞行距离更远,然后再重点用时间对比来论证飞机能缩短世界的距离这个论点。过去的人出行耗时,而且不能去很远这一状况与现代人可以坐飞机环球旅行进行对比,当然中间还有效穿插了马可波罗的例子,来全面突出飞机是最能改变人们生活的。

 

3. 其他类考题

托福独立写作题库185考题:

TV has destroyed communication among family and friends. Do you agree or disagree? Use specific reasons and examples to support your answer.

这是题库里的一道老题,电视会破坏和家人朋友之间的交流,同不同意?属于事实现象题,虽然不是时间对比论证类题型的特点,但是也一样可以用到这种论证方法。

 

Firstly, TV reduces the time that people can use to get along with their family and friends. In old days, there was no TV so that parents could tell stories to their children. There is no doubt that it is really a good way for people to communicate with each other. However, in modern time, TV programs occupy a large portion of people’s day time, making them have less chance to chat with.

论证电视会减少与家人朋友交流的时间,可以拿以前没有电视时候的相聚情景与现在有了电视的场景进行对比。

 

对比论证在托福写作中应用广泛,时间对比只是其中的一种论证手段。考生们要学会抓住每种题型的特点,才能合理有效地应用各种论证思路。

 

 

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