Paragraph 5: When oceanic islands are far enough apart to permit populations to evolve in isolation, but close enough to allow occasional dispersions to occur, they are effectively outdoor laboratories of evolution. The Galapagos island chain is one of the world’s greatest showcases of evolution. Each island was born from underwater volcanoes and was gradually covered by organisms derived from strays that rode the ocean currents and winds from other islands and continents.
题目：Paragraph 5 supports the idea that Galapagos island chain was able to become “one of world’s greatest showcases of evolution” primarily because of”
A. the richness of the volcanic soil of each of the islands in the chain
B. the distance of the individual islands from each other and from the mainland
C. the relativity long time it took for the islands to become covered by organisms
D. the outdoor laboratories that scientists have built on the islands to study evolution
题目解析：题目里出现里大写字母的专有名词，题目问的是段落“Galapagos Island”chain成为了世界上最大的进化陈列窗的一个的原因是什么。那么定位到文章红色部分那句话。但是并没有原因出现。整个段落一共只有三句话，那么很显然。这个段落的结构是第一句话讲的是原因，也就是说当海洋的岛屿要足够远允许数量在隔离的情况下进化但是又要足够近，允许偶尔分散的发生。接下来Galapagos island只是在举例子而已。正确答案应该是B。跟距离相关的。(在这个题目里出现引号，如果题目里出现引号说明一定是原文的原句)
Paragraph 3: Second, this internationalism spelled the end of the classical Greek city-state — the unit of government in ancient Greece — and everything it stood for. Most city-states had been quite small in terms of citizenry, and this was considered to be a good thing. The focus of life was the agora, the open marketplace where assemblies could be held and where issues of the day, as well as more fundamental topics such as the purpose of government or the relationship between law and freedom, could be discussed and decisions made by individuals in person. The philosopher Plato (428-348 B.C.) felt that the ideal city-state should have about 5,000 citizens, because to the Greeks it was important that everyone in the community should know each other. In decision-making, the whole body of citizens together would have the necessary knowledge in order generally to reach the right decision, even though the individual might not be particularly qualified to decide. The philosopher Aristotle (384-322 B.C.), who lived at a time when the city-state system was declining, believed that a political entity of 100,000 simply would not be able to govern itself.
题目5. According to paragraph 3, Plato believed that the ideal city-state should be
A. governed by a ruling body of about 5,000 city leaders with a total population of no more than 100,000
B. led by the most qualified individual
C. governed by the group of citizens with the most knowledge about the issues of the day
D. small enough so that everyone would know each other。
攻略 2 数字定位
以“Colonizing the Americas via the Northwest Coast”为例，
Support is growing for the alternative theory that people using watercraft, possibly skin boats, moved southward from Beringia along the Gulf of Alaska and then southward along the Northwest coast of North America possibly as early as 16,000 years ago. This route would have enabled humans to enter southern areas of the Americas prior to the melting of the continental glaciers. Until the early 1970s, most archaeologists did not consider the coast a possible migration route into the Americas because geologists originally believed that during the last Ice Age the entire Northwest Coast was covered by glacial ice. It had been assumed that the ice extended westward from Alaskan/Canadian mountains to the very edge of the continental shelf, that, submerged part of the continent that extends into the ocean, This would have created a barrier of ice extending from the Alaska Peninsula through the Gulf of Alaska and southward along the Northwest Coast of North America to what is today and state of Washington.
题目：Paragraph 2 supports the idea that before the 1970s，most archaeologists held which of the following views about the earliest people to reach the Americas?
A. They could not have sailed directly from Beringia to Alaska and then region.
B. They were not aware that the climate would continue to become milder.
C. They would have had no interest in migrating southward from Beringia until after the continental glaciers had begun to melt.
D. They lacked the navigational skills and appropriate boats needed long-distance trips.
Paragraph 5: The coastal hypothesis has gained increasing support in recent years because the remains of large land animals, such as caribou and brown bears, have been found in southeastern Alaska dating between 10,000 and 12,500 years ago. This is the time period in which most scientists formerly believed the area to be inhospitable for humans. It has been suggested that if the environment were capable of supporting breeding populations of bears, there would have been enough food resources to support humans. Fladmark and other believe that the first human colonization of America occurred by boat along the Northwest Coast during the very late Ice Age, possibly as early as 14,000 years ago. The most recent geologic evidence indicates that it may have been possible for people to colonize ice-free regions along the continental shelf that were still exposed by the lower sea level between13,000 and 14,000 years ago.
题目：According to paragraph 5, the most recent geologic research provides support for a first colonization of America dating as far as back as
A)16000 years ago
B)14000 years ago
C)12500 years ago
题目解析：这道题目是答案里出现数字，通过答案的数字直接定位到文章，A答案16000，文章里没有，暂时先放一下，14000在文章出现的地方有两个。关键句在文章里已用红色标出。First human colonization应该可以追溯到14000年之前。所以应该是B。
攻略 3 题目里关键词是原文的同义转换
Paragraph 6: All this applies, of course, only to an adult leatherback. Hatchlings are simply too small to conserve body heat, even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems. We do not know how old, or how large, a leatherback has to be before it can switch from a cold-blooded to a warm-blooded mode of life. Leatherbacks reach their immense size in a much shorter time than it takes other sea turtles to grow. Perhaps their rush to adulthood is driven by a simple need to keep warm.
题目：According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements is most accurate about young leatherback turtles?
A. They lack the countercurrent exchange systems that develop in adulthood.
B. Their rate of growth is slower than that of other sea turtles.
C. They lose heat easily even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems.
D. They switch between cold-blooded and warm-blooded modes throughout their hatchling stage.
题目解析：题目里的关键词应该是“young leatherback turtle”，但是回归文章的时候并没有找到。但是“hatchings”(刚孵化的小动物)，是跟它相对应的。Hatchings所在的句子是说，刚刚孵化的太小里以至于不能去储存热量，即使他们有绝对层跟逆流交换系统。所以同义转换应该是C答案。
Though it may be difficult to imagine from a later perspective, a strain of critical opinion in the1920s predicted that sound film would be a technical novelty that would soon fade from sight, just as had many previous attempts, dating well back before the First World War, to
link images with recorded sound. These critics were making a common assumption—that the technological inadequacies of earlier efforts (poor synchronization, weak sound amplification, fragile sound recordings) would invariably occur again. To be sure, their evaluation of the technical flaws in 1920s sound experiments was not so far off the mark, yet they neglected to take into account important new forces in the motion picture field that, in a sense, would not take no for an answer.
题目：According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true about the technical problems of early sound films?
A. Linking images with recorded sound was a larger obstacle than weak sound amplification or fragile sound recordings.
B. Sound films in the 1920s were unable to solve the technical flaws found in sound films before the First World War.
C. Technical inadequacies occurred less frequently in early sound films than critics suggested.
D. Critics assumed that it would be impossible to overcome the technical difficulties experienced with earlier sound films.
题目解析：题目里“technical problems”与题目里的 “technological inadequacies ” 是相对应的。
攻略 4 因果关系的逻辑词
如果是针对事实信息题why 开头的题目，也就是问因果，那么要注意段落里表示因果的逻辑词。托福阅读里经常出现表示结果的词：therefore/thereby/thus/accordingly/consequently/hence原因的词：because/as/blame A for B/account for/due to等
Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Islands were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus the seed’s chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore. One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming vegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hard-like the shell of a nut-for extra protection. Some are soft and tempting, like tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperms, the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seed to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.
题目：According to paragraph 4, why do seeds have a greater chance of survival than spores do? To receive credit, you must select TWO answer choices.
A. Seeds need less water to grow into a mature plant than spores do.
B. Seeds do not need to rely on outside sources of nutrients.
C. Seeds are better protected from environmental dangers than spores are.
D. Seeds are heavier than spores and are therefore more likely to take root and grow.