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[托福培训]托福阅读中的同义替换

来源:朗阁教育16-04-13编辑:朗阁小编0人看过

托福阅读考试对学生的词汇量其实是有一定的要求的,一定程度上增加了考试难度,同义词的替换也是常见的,下面我们可以看一下。

一般说来,我们可以从如下几个方面来进行paraphrase转述表达:

 

1. 同义词、反义词的替换

 

A

The elephant is another animal that lives in groups. An elephant herd usually has from twenty to forty members. The elephants in theherd depend on one another for help in time of trouble.

 

解析:此处groups/ herd是同义词;

 

B

Dinosaurs were ancient species of reptiles. They lived on Earth for 160 million years. Some dinosaurs were as small as rabbits; others were enormous. Some ate meat, and others ate plants. They disappeared about 65 million years ago. Scientists believe that they starved to death. They think the climate changed quickly and caused many plants to die.

 

解析:此处lived/ disappeared;small/enormous; meat /plants均为反义词词组;

 

2. 词义词性的替换

 

C

Recently, more airport officers have been shocked by the growth of animal smuggling. Sometimes, they find live turtles, lizards, frogs, and snakes in passengers' carry-on bags. Smugglers use several tricks to bring animals through airports. They put live snakes into film boxes and birds into tennis ball cans. Police even found an iguana taped to a man's chest. Not all animals are smuggled alive, however. Many die on the way. Animal body parts are also found. These include antlers, skins, dried organs, hooves, or feet.

 

解析:此处smuggling、Smugglers、 smuggled都是单词smuggle的不同形式,为了表达不同的词性,做不同的成分,分别使用了不同的词性和词义。

 

3. 句子结构的替换

 

A flying car society has many problems to solve. The first concerns safety. If there are no roads, what will stop people from crashing into each other? It is easy for a single car to travel, but what happens when there are thousands? Another issue is cost. At the moment, it costs several million dollars for one car. How can people afford to buy them? The third issue is fuel. At the moment, it costs several million dollars for one car. How can people afford to buy them? The third issue is fuel. There needs to be enough fuel to supply these cars. The fuel also needs to be less polluting than the kind we use now. Still, technology is advancing. It is likely that these problems will be solved in a few years. Then, dreams of quick and easy flight will be realities.

 

解析:此处文中用The first /Another /The third 结构上既避免了重复,又体现了语言的多样性;concerns、issue也是同义词替换;处处体现者语言的多样性;

 

在托福阅读中存在着大量的同义替换现象。解决托福阅读过程中的同义词识别问题,首先应该加强对常见的高频词和常用词的掌握。事实上,越是常用的词,词义越多,词性也越多。所以建议同学们在平时学习单词要多注意一次多义现象,要留心单词的搭配及常用短语,这样在阅读文章时就可以联系上下文的具体语境,运用我们上面讲到的三类方法更好地识别同义词,更好地理解阅读原文,就算在遇到不认识的单词时,也可以有效的提高语境的认知及对语篇的掌握。

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