朗阁首页 > 托福阅读 > 2018托福备考技能盘点-阅读篇

2018托福备考技能盘点-阅读篇

来源:朗阁教育18-04-09编辑:朗阁小编0人看过

随着落幕,朗阁以考情回顾为基础,为大家展望2018年托福阅读备考的难点及技能。

随着落幕,朗阁以考情回顾为基础,为大家展望2018年托福阅读备考的难点及技能。

 

一、托福阅读的难点

说到托福考试,很多考生的感觉就是相比同级别的雅思考试难,那么,就阅读这个单项而言,它难在哪里呢:难以适应的机考模式?更加专业的学科背景?倒计时的压力?说到底,托福是一门语言能力的测试,而文章、题型、考试模式都只是外在的形式,对于托福而言也有一个福音那就是考察的都是选择题的形式,那么我们首先看看它的题型包括哪些。

 

序号

题型类别

题量比重

考察方向

1.

词汇题

3-5

词汇考察有规律,重复性强

重视语境

2/3.

事实信息题

否定事实信息(排除)

4-8

细节语义

4.

推断题

1-2

细节语义+隐含义

5.

句子简化题

0-1

语义+提取主干

6.

指代题

0-2

代词/高亮词组指代关系

7.

插入句子题

1

语义+结构

8.

修辞目的题

1-2

语义+结构

9.

文章总结题

0-1

语义+概括能力

10.

表格填空题

0-1

语义+分类能力

 

从题型以及实际考情,我们为考生们总结出具体的难点如下:

1. 词汇

对于词汇,笔者经常听到学生们抱怨自己词汇量太少,或者学过的词汇会忘等问题,其实,词汇量少确实是硬伤,但除了“量”之外,我们还得保证“质”,比如champion这个词汇对于绝大多数考生来说并不陌生,然而在近期的一次考试中,有位学生就遇到了这个被highlight的词汇题,但是却选不出来,原因在于他对于这个词的印象只有感激这样的含义,而纵观选项并没有可选的词,所以就在纠结中错过了正选。翻阅词典不难发现champion这个词的含义还包括:支持,捍卫,声援(动词),因此答案为support。

 

由上,我们可以为各位考生归结词汇上的问题,那就是在积累量的同时,绝对不能忽略一词多义甚至多性,及其特定的语境,并且,词汇的重要性当然不止是体现在举足轻重的词汇题中,也是体现在整篇文章的阅读中,成为阅读中的基础。

 

2. 长难句

我们知道,阅读考察的本质其实是四个字—阅读理解,不得不提的就是长难句,对于native speakers而言,他们在阅读过程中直接在脑中呈现出画面感,从而提取和转化有效信息,而对于我们则多了一道语言的关卡,我们需要在脑中进行加工再进行理解,也就是在潜意识中的翻译。

 

而对长难句快速有效的理解恰恰是我们阅读中最关键的一环,这首先会直接影响到阅读解题的速度,因为如果给我们足够的时间,我们也许可以把文章看懂。同时,大多数的题目都与句子的正确理解有着直接的关联,我们需要快速定位、比对选项和原文信息,其中推断题还需要理解较深层次的含义,例如句子简化题:

The empty shell of a snail or clam may be left behind, and if it is sufficiently durable and resistant to dissolution, it may remain basically unchanged for a long period of time.

A. When snail or clam shells are left behind, they must be empty in order to remain durable and resist dissolution.

B. Although snail and clam shells are durable and resist dissolving, over time they slowly begin to change.

C. Although the soft parts of snails or clams dissolve quickly, their hard shells resist dissolution for a long time.

D. Empty snail or clam shells that are strong enough not to dissolve may stay in their original state for a long time.

 

【正确答案】D

【经典错误】A

【错误原因】隐藏逻辑的情况比较容易出现在句子简化题当中。虽然我们一直强调做这一题型时逻辑关系的发掘非常重要,但偶尔我们也会陷入到惯性思维,掉进出题者的陷阱。比如这题同学们很容易排除掉B, C两个选项,因为原句中不包含转折的逻辑。然后依据原句中的条件逻辑(if), 于是想当然地选择到A(when)。

【正确解析】如果我们仔细研究下A选项,就不难发现A选项中的条件与原句中的条件根本不是一回事:原句中的条件在A选项中变成了目的(in order to)。采取这样的排除法,我们就能选择到正确选项D了。当然,从D选项本身出发,我们也能发掘出这个句子中隐藏的条件逻辑,即限制性定语从句that are strong enough not to dissolve。

 

其次就是插入句子题,例如:

In addition to the internal variability of the global climate system itself, there is the added factor of external influences, such as volcanoes and solar activity. There is a growing body of opinion that both these physical variations have a measurable impact on the climate. Thus we need to be able to include these in our deliberations. Some current analyses conclude that volcanoes and solar activity explain quite a considerable amount of the observed variability in the period from the seventeenth to the early twentieth centuries, but that they cannot be invoked to explain the rapid warming in recent decades.

 

Look at the four squares [] that indicate where the following sentence could be added to the passage.

Indeed, the contribution of volcanoes and solar activity would more likely have been to actually reduce the rate of warming slightly.

Where would the sentence best fit?

 

【正确答案】D

【经典错误】A

【错误原因】这道题同学们误选A的原因其实很简单,就是看到要插入的句子中有volcanoes and solar activity就联想到必须放在这组词的后面。而A处似乎承接起来也问题不大,于是就直接动笔选择了。

【正确解析】这里我们又忽略了一个隐藏逻辑’indeed’。这类表示‘事实上’的词(in fact, actually, virtually...)虽然不是我们通常意义上的逻辑关联词,但却能在一定程度上表达出转折或递进的含义,这种隐藏的逻辑起到的作用在插入文本题当中尤其突出。所以如果我们能够看出indeed在这里的承接关系,那么不论是转折还是递进,我们都应该知道,前文中必须提到和rate of warming相关的话题才能进行插空,这样的话D选项就不难选出了。

 

当然,还有否定事实信息题的考察,例如:

The United States in the 1800’s was full of practical, hardworking people who did not consider the arts-from theater to painting-useful occupations. In addition, the public’s attitude that European art was better than American art both discouraged and infuriated American artists. In the early 1900’s there was a strong feeling among artists that the United States was long overdue in developing art that did not reproduce European traditions. Everybody agreed that the heart and soul of the new country should be reflected in its art. But opinions differed about what this art would be like and how it would develop.

 

According to this paragraph, all of the following were true of American art in the late 1800’s and early 1900’s EXCEPT

A. Most Americans thought art was unimportant.

B. American art generally copied European styles and traditions.

C. Most Americans considered American art inferior to European art.

D. American art was very popular with European audiences.

 

【正确答案】D

【经典错误】A

【错误原因】在解答否定事实信息题时,同学们通常采用的是排除核对的方法。于是在核对A选项时,就特别容易被文中这句’Everybody agreed that the heart and soul of the new country should be reflected in its art’所误导,认为每个人都同意美国的核心应该反映在艺术上。

【正确解析】这里就产生了一个比较难的指代陷阱。文中的everybody到底是不是指的所有美国人呢?如果我们倒退到前一句就会发现,这里仅仅指代了前一句中的artists,而没有涵盖全部的美国人。相反,在这段的开头就有提到在1800’s的美国充满了务实肯干的美国人,他们认为艺术是完全没有用的职业。所以A选项的表达完全符合文意。再仔细核对,会发现只有D选项是文中完全没有提及的。

 

3. 文段结构及其他

除了句子语义的理解,托福阅读还考察文段的结构。

请看以下的例子:

【例题2】

Paragraph 1Since 1980, the use of wind to produce electricity has been growing rapidly. In 1994 there were nearly 20,000 wind turbines worldwide, most grouped in clusters called wind farms that collectively produced 3,000 megawatts of electricity. Most were in Denmark (which got 3 percent of its electricity from wind turbines) and California (where 17,000 machines produced 1 percent of the state’s electricity, enough to meet the residential needs of a city as large as San Francisco). In principle, all the power needs of the United States could be provided by exploiting the wind potential of just three statesNorth Dakota, South Dakota, and Texas.

Paragraph 3Wind power has a significant cost advantage over nuclear power and has become competitive with coal-fired power plants in many places. With new technological advances and mass production, projected cost declines should make wind power one of the world’s cheapest ways to produce electricity. In the long run, electricity from large wind farms in remote areas might be used to make hydrogen gas from water during periods when there is less than peak demand for electricity. The hydrogen gas could then be fed into a storage system and used to generate electricity when additional or backup power is needed.

Paragraph 4Wind power is most economical in areas with steady winds. In areas where the wind dies down, backup electricity from a utility company or from an energy storage system becomes necessary. Backup power could also be provided by linking wind farms with a solar cell, with conventional or pumped-storage hydropower, or with efficient natural-gas-burning turbines. Some drawbacks to wind farms include visual pollution and noise, although these can be overcome by improving their design and locating them in isolated areas.

 

Based on the information in paragraph 3 and paragraph 4, what can be inferred about the states of North Dakota, South Dakota, and Texas mentioned at the end of paragraph 1?

A. They rely largely on coal-fired power plants.

B. They contain remote areas where the winds rarely die down.

C. Over 1 percent of the electricity in these states is produced by wind farms.

D. Wind farms in these states are being expanded to meet the power needs of the United States.

 

【正确答案】B

【经典错误】D

【错误原因】这道题选择D对于很多同学来讲,也是无奈之举。因为出题段落实在太长了,短时间内根本无法找到正确的出路去解答这道题。于是D这个看起来最符合文章大意,最像答案的选项就自然成为同学们的第一选择了。

【正确解析】其实,如果同学们仔细审题就会发现,题干里对大家的提示还是挺明显的。首先从infer看出这是一道推理题,而推理的对象来自文章的第一段,但是答案应该得出自文章的第三和第四段。于是我们就自然地找到这样一条解题路径:第一段定位推理对象—明确推理对象性质或特点—第三、四段综合寻找有关细节—将所有细节结合推论。按照这个思路,我们从第一段得知这些州都是适合风力发电的地方,然后到三、四段找到适合风力发电的地点具备in remote areas和with steady winds两个特点(文中都有表示地点的词作提示),最后将两个信息点结合起来就可以推断出B选项了。

 

二、托福阅读的技能总结

1. 知己知彼,百战百胜之熟悉词汇及背景

上文中我们提到,托福阅读的词汇题是有规律性且重复性极强的,比如含有”大量”这个语义的词汇就在今年的考试中多次出现,因此,我们可以利用起托福词汇题(大量重复考察)进行不断练习和熟悉,同时在练习过程中,不要孤立的选取词义,而应该在借助或确认上下文的语义之后再进行判断,以避免我们上文说的champion的问题。

 

如果说对于这些核心词汇,我们应该有全面而深刻的理解,那么对于另外一些所谓的话题词,我们则只需要具备简单的中英互译的能力即可,那么这些话题词也就是来自于托福阅读的背景,同时,我们也就需要熟悉托福阅读常常考察的背景。结合2017年的考情分析,统计出一下话题考查次数分布:

 

类别

大概考查次数(截止11月考试)

生物类

动物话题:110次

植物话题:15次

自然科学类

天文话题:40次

地质话题:25次

社会科学类

农业话题:15次

经济话题:17次

工业化及运输:15次

其他

古文明话题:15次

艺术话题:10次

 

2. 克服长难句

长难句是一个必须攻克的难关,而真正使其长而难的问题依然在于其基本的句法,那么,我们主要须熟悉及理解以下结构:句子的主干、名词性的修饰、动词性的修饰、插入语、句子的逻辑关系,打通以上几点,我们就可以迅速而有效地理解句子,从而进行篇章理解及解题。当然,这必然需要考生进行针对性的练习,在我们的备考过程中,除了日常积累词汇以外,进行长难句的训练也是必要的,可以把TPO中较复杂的句子单独找出来,也可以进行文章的精读训练,由此才能发现理解中的盲点,并且逐渐提高阅读的速度和准确度,并进而提高对整篇文章及概括的理解能力。

 

3. 战胜时间

凡是经历过实战的考生都会感觉到时间是最大的敌人,因此,在备考的过程中,考生应先行把速度提上来,进行限时练习,任何不计时间成本的做题结果都是没有参考价值的,而且容易养成慢的习惯。所以,宁愿正确率低也要先保证按时做题,而具体的分析可以放到题目做完之后进行单独总结

 

综上,我们简单回顾了托福阅读中的难点以及大家在备考过程中需要培养的技能,朗阁老师希望能够助广大考生直达高分,实现留学梦想。

 

如果还有什么疑问,可以在线咨询我们的老师。

填写以下表单,免费领取雅思、托福、SAT备考资料:

朗阁小编推荐:

教师讲解新托福阅读考试总体内容

托福阅读背景知识:纳米技术

托福阅读备考:技巧VS实力

考试又改革?来这里看第一手考试动态
复习没思路?来这里看独家干货
考前还在转发锦鲤?这里有资深编辑押题预测!加我!加我!免费获取资料

热门托福培训课程推荐

  • 适用人群
  • 词汇量1000左右
  • 词汇量在2000-2500
  • 词汇量在3500-4000
  • 大二/大三英语程度
  • 开课时间
  • 热报中
  • 滚动开班
  • 即将开班
  • 热报中

30 天热搜

关注我们 more