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[托福培训]托福阅读事实信息题题型解析

来源:朗阁教育16-11-02编辑:朗阁小编0人看过

托福培训中只要一说到事实信息题,可能绝大部分的托儿们都会摇头,这种题的错误率太高了。下面朗阁小编带大家先来阅读一下事实信息题的题目要求:

托福培训中只要一说到事实信息题,可能绝大部分的托儿们都会摇头,这种题的错误率太高了。下面朗阁小编带大家先来阅读一下事实信息题的题目要求:

 

According to the paragraph, which of the following is true of X?

According to the paragraph, X did Y because.....?

According to the paragraph, X occurred because.....?

The author’s description of X mentions which of the following?

 

根据OG给出的题目要求,我们不难发现,只要我们通过题干的X,Y到相关段落中找出与题干相关的句子即可。但是,注意了,但是后面都是重点呢,ETS出题并不是想要我们不费吹灰之力就找到答案的,所以如果他想让我们找不到怎么办呢?答案也很简单,换词啊,如果题干给的是X, 那么我可以改变X的词性吧,词性改了还是轻松找到啊,那么我可以给X的同义词吧,所以说事实信息题想要做好做对,其实基石还是单词的同义改写。

 

我们先来看TPO 19 Fossil Preservation这道事实信息题吧:

Paragraph 7:The probability that actual remains of soft tissue will be preserved is improved if the organism dies in an environment of rapid deposition and oxygen deprivation. Under such conditions, the destructive effects of bacteria are diminished. The Middle Eocene Messel Shale (from about 48 million years ago) of Germany accumulated in such an environment. The shale was deposited in an oxygen-deficient lake where lethal gases sometimes bubbled up and killed animals. Their remains accumulated on the floor of the lake and were then covered by clay and silt. Among the superbly preserved Messel fossils are insects with iridescent exoskeletons (hard outer coverings), frogs with skin and blood vessels intact, and even entire small mammals with preserved fur and soft tissue.

Ø  According to paragraph 7, how do environments containing oxygen affect fossil preservation?

O They increase the probability that soft-tissued organisms will become fossils.

O They lead to more bacteria production.

O They slow the rate at which clay and silt are deposited.

O They reduce the chance that animal remains will be preserved.

 

题干中除了标题词主题词fossil preservation之外,还有environments containing oxygen, 所以我们带着这三个字从这段开头读起,找到与题干有关的地方,很快在段落的第二行我们发现了environment和oxygen, 但是没有看到contain, 因为contain是动词,所以它被同义改写也是很正常的,环境中包含氧,原文中什么在修饰氧气呢,是deprivation,这个词很多考生都不认识,没关系,我们再接着往下看,这段第四句话再一次出现oxygen-deficient environment, 这次换了个词,聪明的考生一定发现虽然单词不一样,但是不变的是-de这个否定前缀啊,说明就是缺氧的环境呢。除此之外,这篇文章讲的是生物化石的保存保护,当然是在无氧的环境啦。所以,答案就是句话了。

 

 

句话是if引导的条件状语从句,如果有机物死在无氧和快速沉淀的环境中,然后主句的主语是probability, 谓语动词是is improved, 可能性是被改善的,换言之,如果死在有氧的环境中,可能性是降低的,所以答案是D。D选项中的the chance是probability的同义词,reduce是improve的反义词,因为题干说有氧,而文章说无氧。我们再来看下A选项,they increase the probability that...,这和句话简直一摸一样,选A的同学一定是没有发现题干与原文说的是相反的含义,还是败在词汇量上了。

 

我们再来看下B选项,B选项中有个专有名词bacteria(细菌),它出现在第二句话中,第二句话中既没有environment也没有oxygen, 它和题干有关么?细心的同学发现,前两句话的衔接用了under such conditions, such这个代词就告诉我们环境条件一样,仍然是无氧的条件,bacteria are diminished细菌在减少,那么在有氧的条件,细菌就是在增多啊,B选项说的是对的啊,为什么不选B呢?笔者在本文一开始的时候就说了,我们题目时常做错并不是因为没读懂,而是各种粗心,各种不够细致导致的,我们再来看一下原句:Under such conditions, the destructive effects of bacteria are diminished. 做错的同学们,你们是不是漏了destructive effects,细菌的破坏性的影响力在减少,所以加否定的话也是细菌的破坏性的影响力在增多,细菌本身多了还是少了,文章中并没有说,所以选项B不对。

 

最后再来看下选项C, C选项中也出现了专有名词clay and silt, 它出现在这段的倒数第二句。首先,它离本题的正确定位点有点远,其次,这句话说的是Their remains accumulated on the floor of the lake and were then covered by clay and silt.他们的残骸积累在湖底并且被clay和silt覆盖,并没有提到C选项的rate, 所以C不对。

 

讲完这道题我们再来总结一下,事实信息题的正确答案一定基于原文,一定要100%的理解定位句,正确答案与原文要有同义改写,千万不要被选项与原文相同长相的专有名词迷惑了双眼。干扰选项一定在正确定位点周围;干扰选项会保留与文章长相相同的专有名词;干扰选项一定没有正确理解句子,一定加入了无中生有的信息。

 

我们再来看一道OG样题Lascaux Cave Paintings拉斯科岩洞画巩固一下:

Paragraph 6 Perhaps so much time has passed that there will never be satisfactory answers to the cave images, but their mystique only adds to their importance. Certainly a great art exists, and by its existence reveals that ancient human beings were not without intelligence, skill, and sensitivity.

According to paragraph 6, why might the puzzling questions about the paintings never be answered?

O Keeping the paintings a mystery will increase their importance.

O The artists hid their tools with great intelligence and skill.

O Too many years have gone by since the images were painted.

O Answering the questions is not very important to scholars.

 

这道题所对应的段落非常短,定位很容易,想要把这段看懂也不是什么难事,重点是想要把这道题选对就蛮有迷惑性的了。首先,我们通过puzzling questions和never be answered进行定位,在行顺利找到对应的句子:there will never be satisfactory answers to the cave images。继续往下读,我们发现这句话的后半句出现了“人见人爱花见花开的but”,看到but脑中就自动浮现“转折之后是重点”这七个大字,所以顺势往后读,their mystique adds to their importance, 所以答案选A。其实在做这道题时,托儿们犯了两个致命的错误。,虽然划了定位词,但是忽略了特殊疑问代词why, 这道题问的是为什么得不到解答的原因,所以我们应该在原文中找因果关系词,但是我们并没有在句话中看到如because, since, as, for, so, therefore这样常规的因果关系词,我们看到了一个熟悉的句型,so....that(如此…以至于), so much time has passed that(太长时间过去了,所以得不到令人满意的回答),所以原因与时间有关,答案是C选项,即使文章中如此简单的so much time都要在C选项中换个方法表达:too many years have gone; 第二,草率地认为转折之后是答案。出现转折词,我们知道转折词前后意思相反,托福阅读除了最后一个题型都在考察细节,所以其实答案取决于定位的信息,如果定位的信息在转折词之前,答案就是前面,反之亦然。

 

最后的最后我们来看一道TPO7 Ancient Rome and Greece古代罗马和希腊:

Paragraph 4 Modern attitudes to Roman civilization range from the infinitely impressed to the thorough disgusted. As always, there are the power worshipers, especially among historians, who are predisposed to admire whatever is strong, who feel more attracted to the might of Rome than to the subtlety of Greece. At the same time, there is a solid body of opinion that dislikes Rome. For many, Rome is at best the imitator and the continuator of Greece on a larger scale. Greek civilization had quality; Rome, mere quantity. Greece was the inventor; Rome, the research and development division. Such indeed was the opinion of some of the more intellectual Romans.&rd

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