朗阁首页 > 托福阅读 > [托福培训]论新托福阅读中修辞目的题的多变性

[托福培训]论新托福阅读中修辞目的题的多变性

来源:朗阁教育16-09-21编辑:朗阁小编0人看过

修辞目的题(rhetorical purpose questions)在新托福阅读考试中为必考题,每篇文章一般有0-2题,今天朗阁老师就为大家论述下新托福阅读中修辞目的题的多变性,其题目表达形式常见为

修辞目的题(rhetorical purpose questions)在新托福阅读考试中为必考题,每篇文章一般有0-2题,今天朗阁就为大家论述下新托福阅读中修辞目的题的多变性,其题目表达形式常见为:

the author uses x as an example of…

why does the author mention x ?

why does the author use the word … in discussing…?

the author discusses x in paragraph x in order to…

 

在介绍具体的做题技巧前,我们先详细了解一下什么是所谓的修辞以及它所考察的考生的能力有哪些:托福阅读中的修辞含义很广,包括"举例子、下定义、阐述、解释、对比、反驳、强调、批评"等。根据官方指南(official guide)说法,这里的修辞是指"有效写作或演讲的艺术",也就是说,某个具体信息可能是为了给某个观点举例子,下定义,或者是为了阐述、解释、对比、反驳、强调、批评某个观点。而这里说的具体信息可能是一个词、一句话甚至是一个段落。如果说事实信息题是问作者给出了哪个细节或信息的话,修辞目的题则是问为什么给出某个具体信息或细节。由此我们可以知道修辞目的题实际考察同学们在阅读中"角色转换"的能力,也就是把自己想成是作者,揣摩作者写某个词、某句话,或某一段的意图能力。所以考生一定要明白这类题目不是让你理解句意,千万不要以做细节题的思路来解决这类题型。那么如何正确解题?以及到底这类题型有哪些变化呢?接下来我们就来好好的讨论一番。

 

首先,根据上文论述,我们做的步就是要找出修辞的逻辑上一层信息。什么意思呢?我们可以发现修辞的目的就是为了一个信息点服务,而在逻辑上分析可以理解成下层信息为上层信息奠定基础。因此,我们需要找寻的答案就是修辞本身所支持的逻辑上一层信息。如何在文中正确的找寻上一层信息?本文将会讲解几个考生比较容易掌握的找寻方法。

 

1. 句子细节信息支持句子主干内容

对于这一类题目,答案基本上就在同一句话中,所以不需要往句子前或者句子后进行搜索,只要从句子本身分析出发,找出句子中的主干信息和细节信息。请看例子:

Note the word "net": measuring the actual amounts of groundwater seepage into the lake and out of the lake is a much more complicated matter than merely inferring their difference. (TPO24 lake water)

4.Why does the author use the phrase Note the word "net" in the passage?

A.To emphasize the impact of seepage on water levels

B.To point out that seepage is calculated differently from river flows and atmospheric exchanges

C.To compare the different methods of calculating seepage

D.To emphasize the difficulty of obtaining specific values for seepage inputs and outputs

注意观察冒号这个符号,意为解释后面的句子主干信息,所以答案为D。

 

This facility was then in its third decade of production and was beginning to show signs of decline, perhaps because of over development. (TPO21 Geothermal Energy)

6. In paragraph 3, why does the author mention that in the 1990s the Geysers was in its third decade of production?

A. To provide the historical context of the geothermal production of electricity in the United States

B. To imply that the Geysers was the first geothermal site to be put into production in California

C. To help explain the signs of decline shown by the Geysers

D. To explain why 70 new geothermal sites were put into electricity production in the late 1990s

句子前半句出现then, 可见前面内容是为了支持后半句and后面的内容。

 

2. 整个句子内容是为了论证所支持的逻辑上一层的论点

对于此类题目,答案基本上往修辞所在句子的前面或者后面搜索答案。按其特征来看,可以分为以下两类进行分别论述。

 

(1). 有明显的逻辑连接词或者态度词作为提醒,答案的位置基本上可以根据提醒词推出在修辞所在句子前面或者后面。逻辑连接词以及态度词有:

转折关系:however, but, although, instead, rather than等

因果关系:because, result in, result from, consequently, as a result等

递进关系:furthermore, also, moreover等

态度类词汇:happy, worried, panic, luckily, fortunately, unfortunately, impatient, curious, anxious, ridiculous, hopeless等

 

请看例子:One necessary condition seems to be a somewhat detached view of human problems. For example, one sign of this condition is the appearance of the comic vision, since comedy requires sufficient detachment to view some deviations from social norms as ridiculous rather than as serious threats to the welfare of the entire group. (TPO1 the origins of theater)

11. Why does the author mention “comedy”?

A. To give an example of early types of theater

B. To explain how theater helps a society respond to threats to its welfare

C. To help explain why detachment is needed for the development of theater

D. To show how theatrical performers become detached from other members of society.

for example标志应该往前看,前面是观点后面是例子,所以答案为C

 

Forehead rubbing by male deer on buck rubs presumably sends a great deal of information to other members of the same species. First, the chemicals deposited on the rub provide information on the individual identity of an animal; no two mammals produce the same scent. For instance, as we all know, dogs recognize each other via smell. (TPO28 Buck Rubs and Buck Scrapes)

5. Why does author mention that “dogs recognize each other via smell”?

A.To point out the similarities between dogs and deer

B.To argue that animals communicate through scent rather than through vision

C.To support the claim that the scent of a buck rub serves to identify its maker to other deer

D.To suggest that rubs can be detected by other species

这句话是由for instance引出的,那么如果要找这个例子的目的,要到前面去找论点。这一段的总论点,就是句话,主要是“send information to other members”; first后面是个分论点,所以答案应该跟这两句有关,因此选C气味可以帮助identify。

 

At greater depths within Earth, the pressure of the overlying rock causes pores and cracks to close, reducing the space that pore water can occupy, and almost complete closure occurs at a depth of about 10 kilometers. The greatest water storage, therefore, lies near the surface. (TPO28 Groundwater)

1. In paragraph1, why does the author mention “the pressure of the overlying rock”?

A.To show how water can be forced deep under Earth’s surface

B.To show why groundwater is more plentiful than surface freshwater

C.To correct a commonly made error about the location of groundwater

D.To explain why most groundwater lies near Earth’s surface

在修辞的描写之后,本段的最后一句出现了therefore。这里也是在说the pressure of the overlying rock导致的结果,也就是文章提到它的目的。其结果是,大部分的水储都在比较表面的地方。所以其目的就是要解释为什么水都在表面的地方,因此选D。

 

An even more exciting find was reported in 1994, also from Pakistan. The now extinct whale Ambulocetus natans ("the walking whale that swam") lived in the Tethys Sea 49 million years ago. It lived around 3 million years after Pakicetus but 9 million before Basilosaurus. The fossil luckily includes a good portion of the hind legs.(TPO2 The origins of Cetaceans)

9. Why does the author use the word luckily in mentioning that the Ambulocetus natans fossil included hind legs?

A. Fossil legs of early whales are a rare find.

B. The legs provided important information about the evolution of cetaceans.

C. The discovery allowed scientists to reconstruct a complete skeleton of the whale.

D. Until that tim

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