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事实信息题全攻略论文(二)

来源:朗阁教育19-01-03编辑:cici0人看过

事实信息题是托福阅读的主流题型,是所有题型中占比最重的一个题型。提高此题型的正确率非常重要。

  攻略 3 题目里关键词是原文的同义转换

  去看TPO时发现,有一些事实信息题题目里关键词已经是文章原词的同义转换。

  Paragraph 6: All this applies, of course, only to an adult leatherback. Hatchlings are simply too small to conserve body heat, even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems. We do not know how old, or how large, a leatherback has to be before it can switch from a cold-blooded to a warm-blooded mode of life. Leatherbacks reach their immense size in a much shorter time than it takes other sea turtles to grow. Perhaps their rush to adulthood is driven by a simple need to keep warm.

  题目:According to paragraph 6, which of the following statements is most accurate about young leatherback turtles?

  A. They lack the countercurrent exchange systems that develop in adulthood.

  B. Their rate of growth is slower than that of other sea turtles.

  C. They lose heat easily even with insulation and countercurrent exchange systems.

  D. They switch between cold-blooded and warm-blooded modes throughout their hatchling stage.

  题目解析:题目里的关键词应该是“young leatherback turtle”,但是回归文章的时候并没有找到。但是“hatchings”(刚孵化的小动物),是跟它相对应的。Hatchings所在的句子是说,刚刚孵化的太小里以至于不能去储存热量,即使他们有绝对层跟逆流交换系统。所以同义转换应该是C答案。


事实信息题全攻略论文(二)


  Though it may be difficult to imagine from a later perspective, a strain of critical opinion in the1920s predicted that sound film would be a technical novelty that would soon fade from sight, just as had many previous attempts, dating well back before the First World War, to

  link images with recorded sound. These critics were making a common assumption—that the technological inadequacies of earlier efforts (poor synchronization, weak sound amplification, fragile sound recordings) would invariably occur again. To be sure, their evaluation of the technical flaws in 1920s sound experiments was not so far off the mark, yet they neglected to take into account important new forces in the motion picture field that, in a sense, would not take no for an answer.

  题目:According to paragraph 4, which of the following is true about the technical problems of early sound films?

  A. Linking images with recorded sound was a larger obstacle than weak sound amplification or fragile sound recordings.

  B. Sound films in the 1920s were unable to solve the technical flaws found in sound films before the First World War.

  C. Technical inadequacies occurred less frequently in early sound films than critics suggested.

  D. Critics assumed that it would be impossible to overcome the technical difficulties experienced with earlier sound films.

  题目解析:题目里“technical problems”与题目里的 “technological inadequacies ” 是相对应的。

  早期努力的技术不充分(同步性差,扩音差,声音录制易碎)是不可避免的会发生的。所以同义转换应该是D答案。

  攻略 4 因果关系的逻辑词

  如果是针对事实信息题why 开头的题目,也就是问因果,那么要注意段落里表示因果的逻辑词。托福阅读里经常出现表示结果的词:therefore/thereby/thus/accordingly/consequently/hence原因的词:because/as/blame A for B/account for/due to等

  Many millions of years after ferns evolved (but long before the Hawaiian Islands were born from the sea), another kind of flora evolved on Earth: the seed-bearing plants. This was a wonderful biological invention. The seed has an outer coating that surrounds the genetic material of the new plant, and inside this covering is a concentrated supply of nutrients. Thus the seed’s chances of survival are greatly enhanced over those of the naked spore. One type of seed-bearing plant, the angiosperm, includes all forms of blooming vegetation. In the angiosperm the seeds are wrapped in an additional layer of covering. Some of these coats are hard-like the shell of a nut-for extra protection. Some are soft and tempting, like tempting, like a peach or a cherry. In some angiosperms, the seeds are equipped with gossamer wings, like the dandelion and milkweed seeds. These new characteristics offered better ways for the seed to move to new habitats. They could travel through the air, float in water, and lie dormant for many months.

  题目:According to paragraph 4, why do seeds have a greater chance of survival than spores do? To receive credit, you must select TWO answer choices.

  A. Seeds need less water to grow into a mature plant than spores do.

  B. Seeds do not need to rely on outside sources of nutrients.

  C. Seeds are better protected from environmental dangers than spores are.

  D. Seeds are heavier than spores and are therefore more likely to take root and grow.

  题目解析:题目问为什么种子植物的存活率比孢子植物要高。段落里出现了“thus”因果逻辑词。那么原因应该在逻辑词的前面。前面说了两个原因1)种子植物有外层2)里面这个覆盖物有浓缩的营养。所以同义转换应该对应的是B/C.如果段落里有出现表示因果的逻辑词,注意考点的出现。

  当然比较难一些的题目并没有非常明显的逻辑词,是需要学生能看懂句意看出前后句的逻辑关系的。在平时练习过程中还是要不段提升对句子的理解能力。

  事实信息题的答案一定是段落里一到两句话的同义转换,换言之,事实信息题答案一定要基于文章事实。如果只是凭着对段落的印象而来选择答案。风险性是非常大的。本篇文章所总结的定位攻略希望对同学们的备考助一臂之力!


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