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[托福机经]2017年6月3日新托福阅读考题回顾

来源:朗阁教育17-06-06编辑:朗阁小编0人看过

以下是小编为大家带来的2017年6月3日朗阁新托福阅读考试回顾,希望对大家有所帮助。

朗阁海外考试研究中心  辛晓庆

 

考试日期

2017.06.03A套)

Passage 1

Title:

Birdsong(重复2016.03.26, 2015.01.11, 2014.09.27考题)

鸟类鸣叫

大致内容

以下附上全文,供朗阁老师和学员参考。

Birdsong is the classic example of how genes (hereditary information) and environment both have a crucial role to play in the behavioral development of animals. Since the pioneering work of W. H. Thorpe on chaffinches (a common European bird), many species have been studied, and it has become clear both that learning plays an important role for all species and also that there are constraints on what they are able to learn.

 

Thorpe was able to show that learning from others was involved in chaffinch birds through a series of experiments on hand-reared chicks (young birds). As in most other species, only the males sing. Thorpe found that, if he raised young males in total isolation from all others, the song they produced was quite different from that of a normal adult. It was about the right length and in the correct frequency range. It was also split up into a series of notes as it should be. But these notes lacked the detailed structure found in wild birds, nor was the song split up into distinct phrases as it usually is. This suggested that song development requires some social influence. Later experiments in which researchers played recordings of songs to young birds showed just how precise this influence was: many of them would learn the exact pattern of the recording they had heard. A remarkable feature here was that birds were able to copy precisely songs that they only heard in the first few weeks of life, yet they did not sing themselves until about eight months old. They are thus able to store a memory of the sound within their brain and then match their own output to their recollection of it when they mature.

 

Young chaffinches normally learn only chaffinch song, though Thorpe found they could be trained to sing the song of a tree pipit (another type of bird), which is very similar to that of their own species. In general, however, the constraints on learning which birds have ensure that they only learn songs appropriate to the species to which they themselves belong. These constraints may be in their brain’s circuitry, the young bird hatching with a rough idea of the sounds that it should copy. The crude song of a bird reared in isolation gives some clues as to what this rough idea may be: the length, the frequency range and the breaking up into notes are all aspects of chaffinch song shared between normal birds and those reared in isolation. In other cases the constraints are more social, young birds only being prepared to learn from individuals with whom they have social interactions. Thus, in a number of species, it has been found that they will not copy from recordings, but will do so from a live tutor. In some cases this may occur when they are young birds, but in others the main learning period is when they set up their territories and interact with neighbors for the first time, enabling them to match their neighbor’s songs and so countersing with them. Whatever the nature of the learning rules in a particular species, there is no doubt that they are effective; it is very unusual to hear a wild bird singing a song which is not typical of its own species despite the many different songs which often occur in a small patch of woodland.

 

However, not all birds show the same learning pattern as do chaffinches. There are some species which produce normal sounds even if deaf, so that they cannot hear their own efforts, much less copy those of others. The cooing of doves and the crowing of cocks are examples here. In other cases, such as parrots and hill mynahs, birds can be trained to copy a huge variety of sounds, though those they learn in the wild are usually more restricted. The amazing capability of mynahs has apparently arisen simply because birds in an area learn a small number of their calls from each other, males from males and females from females, and these calls are highly varied in structure. The ability to master them has led the birds, incidentally, to be capable of saying “hello” and mimicking a wide variety of other sounds.

Passage 2

Title:

Economic Prosperity in the Roman Augustan Age

(重复2015.12.20, 2015.06.27考题)

罗马奥古斯丁时代的经济发展

大致内容

罗马帝国当时兴盛促进了很多发展。例如进口比出口还要多,经济好了,人们也过上了landowner的生活,周边的国家密集贸易更增大了物资的交流。然而有一些离它非常近的国家反而灭亡了,因为过分依赖于邻国,没有发展本国经济。

本篇为历史类,内容上比较简单。

Passage 3

Title:

The Extinction of the Dinosaurs(重复2016.09.10下午场和2015.11.15考题)

恐龙灭绝

大致内容

先介绍了恒温和变温动物的区别,之后提出关于恐龙是恒温动物有很多证据:

1. 表皮,发现表皮可以maintain body temperature;

2. 大部分生活在temperate zone, 不恒温无法生存;

3. the ratio of predator and prey: 发现prey明显多于predator, 而很多prey都是恒温动物,代谢也少才能生存;

4. bone ring: 恒温动物没有bone ring, 恐龙也没有;

5. 生活地点多、种类多,和其他mammal进行对比。

词汇题:

Birdsong

pioneering = original

distinct = separate

enabling = allowable

restricted = limited

 

Economic Prosperity in the Roman Augustan Age

stimulate = encourage

surplus = excess

lucrative = profitable

elaborate = complex

 

The Extinction of the Dinosaurs

unfavorable = disadvantageous

triggered = initiated

severely = greatly

reinforcing = strengthening

 


 

考试日期

2017.06.03B套)

Passage 1

Title:

Weather Modification

大致内容

人类一直致力于研究控制天气,然后讲了曾经做实验用碘化银降雨,后来又用了干冰。有些人觉得不错,但也有人反对这种做法。

Passage 2

Title:

Changes of Early Modern European States

(重复2015.12.12考题)

大致内容

第一段介绍了欧洲政府出现的背景,讲到某个阶级开始发展起来,并越来越起作用。

第二段介绍说主要是欧洲西部首先开始有了政府,还举了中国的例子,随着商业的发展,政府开始征税,制定规则,重要性越来越大。后面还举了一个例子,大概是普鲁士的对比。

第三段讲了政府在管辖范围内加强文化语言的统一性,举了法国路易十六和法语的例子,也对比了同时期的欧洲东部和亚洲包含多个民族,不那么容易统一文化。

第四段讲了政府开始对军队强化管制(排除题)。

最后一段讲了政府的进一步发展,英国开始出现了国会(parliament), 政府的管理更加有效。

Passage 3

Title:

The Brains of Birds(重复2014.11.09考题)

大致内容

第一段:对于鸟类来说,它们的头的比例对于身体来说偏大(比恐龙的头对身体的比例大),于是鸟为了保持飞行不受阻力,develop了一种能力,某些脑细胞需要的时候再长出来,不需要的时候就变小,以保证头的大小的重量最优。举例northern的一种sing birds, 它们有一种控制唱歌的脑细胞,在春天比在冬天大,冬天的时候,脑袋里面有其他组织会更大,占据剩余空间。

第二段:鸟的大脑和人的大脑一样,有个L的功能,就是左脑右脑控制不同的行为和反应,举例小鸡的左脑区分食物和非食物,右脑注意没见过的新事物和敌人。

第三段:说小鸡左脑控制右眼,右脑控制左眼,这里举了很多小例子,有两道题目。

第四段:说很多sing birds都是右脑处理歌曲小细节,左脑统筹整首歌,来区别歌声是同类还是异类,但是有种Z鸟,两边脑子的功能是相辅相成的,还有别的功能。

Passage 4

Title:

Rainforest中动物特殊的方式发声

大致内容

Rainforest里面有的动物会用特殊的方式发声,以便同类听见。比如一种青蛙会把自己浸在水里,白天和晚上声音传播较远,所以叫声特别多。最后还说了曾经有人做实验来分析这些叫声。

词汇题:

Weather Modification

intriguing = fascinating

inconclusive = not definitive

skeptical = doubtful

unethical = improper

 

Changes of Early Modern European States

install = put in place

hierarchy = system of ranking

rudimentary = simple

initiate = introduce

 

The Brains of Birds

related to = in proportion to

the chicken is distracted by an unfamiliar stimulus = the stimulus grifts attention of the chicken

speculate = guess

 


 

考试日期

2017.06.03C套)

Passage 1

Title:

Global Warming

大致内容

大气中二氧化碳含量增加了27%, 主要是由于化石燃料的燃烧和森林的砍伐。讲了一些影响,海平面升高。北极冰融化不会让海平面升高多少,因为本来就是漂在水面上的,但是一旦南极大陆上覆盖的冰雪融化,就会让海平面升高10米。

Passage 2

Title:

Children play

大致内容

孩子在很小的时候会吃手指脚趾什么的,大一点了就会利用物品的实用功能,比如按玩具电话的号码盘。还会有一些pretend的行为,以及它的一些正面影响。

Passage 3

Title:

The Megafauna Extinction(重复2014.11.15考题)

大致内容

讲的是某一时期哺乳动物大范围灭绝的原因:先说可能是由于气候变化climate change, 但是文章后面进行了否定,因为之前也有气候变化,但是也没有extinction。然后猜测和人类捕杀有关,但澳洲等一些地方的考古证明一些灭绝的动物已经和人类和平共处了上千年,而且一些人类更爱捕杀的动物如reindeer反而没有灭绝。最后说人类活动间接导致了这些动物的灭绝。

Passage 4

Title:

鸟类群居

大致内容

鸟类群居其实有很多弊端,比如打架、疾病传染,但是还是有鸟会群居,这是为什么呢?

有两种理论,一种是information, 不怎么会捕食的鸟跟着会捕食的鸟去一些地方可以吃到东西。另一种理论是dilute, 一起行动可以减少被天敌杀死的几率,举例同样的100个捕食者,2000只鸟在一起就比200只鸟被杀死的几率小。

然后又说了一个例子,一种鸟的天敌是狐狸,狐狸在旁边埋伏,当鸟走向大海的时候就出来抓鸟。这种幼鸟在还不会飞的时候就会一起出动,就是为了减少被狐狸抓到的几率。但是有个人提出了不同的意见,他认为一起出来更容易吸引更多的捕食者,所以这种dilute类型的benefit很少。

最后又进行了分类,习惯去大海远处觅食的鸟常常一起出动,因为海里的鱼都是一群一群的,一起觅食可以享用美餐。另外两种就是在海滨附近或者只是在海滨这里觅食的就没有一起出动,因为食物分布不集中,一起去没什么好处。

词汇题:

The Megafauna Extinction

devastating = extremely destructive

pointed out = stated

favored = preferred

 

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