大家都知道，托福写作考试中独立作文题目有许多都是非常抽象的话题，如：幸福感（happiness），成功（success），金钱（money），社会地位（social status），公共认同（public recognition），乐观精神（optimism），计划和整理（plan and organize），创新（creativity），充满野心的梦想和实际的目标（ambitious dreams and realistic goals），美丽的事物（beautiful things）等等。很多考生遇到此类话题就没有了头绪，因为对他们来说这些东西非常抽象，看不见，摸不着，只是一个概念，因此文章就不知道如何下手，也不知道如何确立观点，写作的时候也会遇到空泛的表达，词汇单一，枯燥，此时考生们很想知道考官是不是有偏向性的观点，并且如何使用语言来表述自己的观点。下面笔者就给大家通过老外的范文分析一下对于抽象类话题如何有效的去破解，写作。
1. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In order to succeed, we should be more like others than be different from others.（抽象类，成功的因素） 2008.10.12（翻译：为了获得成功，我们是和别人不一样还是和别人一样。）
2. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? People holding different views cannot achieve success as a team.（抽象类，成功的因素） 2010.2.13（翻译：持有不同观点的人作为一组不能获得成功。）
3. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It's impossible to succeed if one cannot accept criticism in teamwork.（抽象类，成功的因素） 2012（翻译：如果一个人在团队中不能接受别人的批评就不可能成功。）
4. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is more likely for people with more skills to succeed.（People who try to acquire more than one skills are more likely to become successful than people who just focus on one skill.（抽象类，成功的因素） 2011.8.27（翻译：有更多技能的人容易获得成功。）
5. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? It is much easier for people to achieve success without their family members help now than in the past.（抽象类，成功的因素） 2011.10.29（翻译：没有家人的帮助是前提，现在比过去更容易获得成功。）
6. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? Communication skill is the most important characteristic of successful leadership.（抽象类，领导才能因素） 2011.11.20（翻译：沟通技能是成功领导的最重要的标志。）
7. Do you agree or disagree with the following statement? In order to succeed in doing a new job, the ability to adapt oneself to the new environment is more important than the excellent knowledge of this job.（翻译：在新工作岗位上的成功来源于适应新环境还是拥有更好的知识。）
1. teamwork 团队
You are the sum of the five people you spend the most time with. My mom always used say, "Tell me who your friends are and I'll tell you who you are." And she was right on-because millionaires surround themselves with other millionaires.
If we really are the sum of the people we surround ourselves with, it's so important to surround yourself with the right ones. Successful people are always networking with each other at events, conferences and mastermind groups.
这个点论证了我们托福写作成功的个要素：团队对于成功的重要性，聪明的人不是一个人聪明，而是周围一个团队都聪明最终成果才会更远大，这样他们才能分享更好的资源，人脉，思想和创新，一个人的力量是远远不及众人合起来的力量的。此外这一段中还使用了一些非常好用的短语和句子，如：You are the sum of the five people you spend the most time with. 这个句子传达的意思是the outcome of team work is far more reaching than the outcome of personal efforts. 但是显然这个句子要地道很多。because millionaires surround themselves with other millionaires这个句子告诉我们重复并不算是一种累赘，而是起着一种更好的强调作用。Successful people are always networking with each other at events, conferences and mastermind groups. "network"这个词名转动更加出彩。
2. Like to learn. 学无止境
Every entrepreneur and successful person I've met is a lifelong learner. They understand the importance of constantly improving, constantly growing.
Driven people self-educate through books, audiotapes, online courses, seminars…. They're determined to always learn new skills, to keep developing as a person-to never become stagnant. They never stop.
You have a desire to improve
Not everyone has a lot of ambition. They might be held back by fears that they can't effectively deal with; they might not be creative enough or they might be lazy and used to settling for less if it means they don't have to work too hard.
Then there are those that have a burning desire to constantly improve, learn new things, pick up new skills and sacrifice some fun and enjoyment now, so that they can be happier in the future.
The latter group is the one that keeps improving year after year, getting things done one step at a time.
这一小段回答了托福写作成功话题的第二个问题，需要更多的技能野心和梦想。作为一个优秀的创业者，不断学习新的技能提升自己，才不会被淘汰，大部分的学习必须靠自己完成，可以通过书本，有声读物影像，在线课程，以及研讨会，这里面许多词使用得也是非常漂亮的，比如说"entrepreneur（企业家）", "lifelong（终生）", "audiotapes, online courses, seminars（有声书，在线课程，研讨会）", "stagnant（停滞不前）", "hold back（阻挡）", "settle for less（追求少）", "burning desire（强烈追求）"。
3. being different makes different 与众不同，获得成功
You aren't afraid to express yourself: being yourself and being creative.
Many people don't feel comfortable showing their feelings to the world - revealing their true self to the world just makes them feel too vulnerable.
However, if we look at some of the most successful and widely recognized modern artists, we see that they aren't afraid to follow their vision, and they keep creatively expressing their inner self through their work. Film directors like Wes Anderson are considered auteurs because of their unique artistic style. In the same vein, the billionaire entrepreneurs of today have always been outspoken about their vision, even if it went against the grain.
这一段很清晰地表达出了托福写作关于成功的一个品质：要做自己，不一定要和别人一样，要创新，要勇于说出自己的想法，远见。不要觉得自己不一样就把自己封闭起来，太害怕太脆弱而不敢展现自己（revealing their true self to the world just makes them feel too vulnerable），其中还举了两个例子，一个是当代画家，另一个是电影导演。其中语言值得学习的是：vision（远见）, unique（独一无二）, in the same vein（相似的是，用于类比）, outspoken（过去分词作形容词用）, it goes against the grain（与大众观点不一样）。
4. You don't expect others to do things for you 靠自己
There are men and women out there who simply can't get their act together, so they sit around waiting for the world to sort out their problems. They will call on their friends, family and even coworkers for support way too often, and they always complain about the myriad of trivial problems that keep them from reaching their goals.
On the other hand, truly successful people like to take things into their own hands, and they take responsibility for their own