巧用逻辑快速拆解托福阅读句子简化题_朗阁教育

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巧用逻辑快速拆解托福阅读句子简化题

  • 来源:朗阁教育
  • 18-03-26
  • 编辑:朗阁小编

下面朗阁老师就带领托福考生们来全面了解句子简化题的考察特点及解题技巧。

很多托福考生在刷TPO阅读题目的时候会反映,经常发现句子简化题(Sentence Simplification Question)的错误率较高,一遇到这种题就十分茫然,可能要花上好几分钟来反复比较选项和原句,最后做错了也不明白为什么。下面朗阁老师就带领托福考生们来全面了解句子简化题的考察特点及解题技巧。

 

一、关于句子简化题

句子简化题是托福阅读的必考题型之一,每篇文章的考察频次是0-1题,有一定难度。我们先来看一下题目设置:Which of the sentences below best expresses the essential information in the highlighted sentence in the passage? Incorrect choices change the meaning in important ways or leave out essential information.

 

以上就是句子简化题的经典提问方式,雷打不动的两句话,我们先研读一下:以下哪一句话最好地表达了强调句的基本/必要信息(essential information)?错误选项会在重要方面改变了(change)意思或者遗漏了(leave out)必要信息。通过阅读题干可知,句子简化题的正确答案必须表达出原句的必要信息(即次要信息是可以省略的),错误选项和原句相比意思有所遗漏或不一致。我们考生可能会怎么解题呢?第一步,看原句;第二步,看选项A的句子,比较原句;第三步,看选项B的句子,比较原句……一直到四个选项的句子都看了,也分别和原句进行了比较,再挑出一个最符合题干要求的句子吗?这相当于花时间仔细看五句话,可能还把原句看了不止一遍,既费时间效果也未必多好。

 

朗阁海外考试研究中心的老师们在研究了TPO里的上百道句子简化题真题后,发现了更加稳准狠的解题技巧——根据逻辑关系轻松拆解句子简化题。

 

二、句子内部的逻辑关系

众所周知,托福是偏学术的英语能力考试,其阅读文章体裁可以统称为学术性文章,这类文章具备说理特质,行文讲究格式相对固定、逻辑严密。而高度标准化的托福阅读文章是由句子组成的,托福阅读的句子自然往往也具备很强的逻辑性。ETS用来考察考生对信息理解的句子更多半是句式复杂,逻辑清晰,复合句较多,从句套从句的现象也比比皆是。但换汤不换药,写句子是为了说理,自然要有鲜明的逻辑提示词整合。这就为我们快速拆解句子简化题提供了思路:寻找考题句中的逻辑关系,再和选项一一进行比较。

 

三、真题演练

1. 例题出自TPO 20 - 2 Early Settlements in Southwest Asia

Many complex factors led to the adoption of the new economies, not only at Abu Hureyra, but at many other locations such as 'Ain Ghazal, also in Syria, where goat toe bones showing the telltale marks of abrasion caused by foot tethering (binding) testify to early herding of domestic stock.

 

这句话乍一看包含了多个逻辑关系词,其实主干内容就是Many complex factors led to the adoption of the new economies, 许多复杂因素促使了新经济的采用。所以该句是因果关系,逻辑提示词为lead to。Not only…but also可表并列或递进,在句中引导地点状语,点出不仅发生在Abu Hureyra, 还发生在其他地方如Ain Ghazal, also in Syria为插入语,补充说明AG也在叙利亚。最后where引导从句提及了早期驯化牲畜的证据。根据句子主干的因果关系,再去排查选项中的逻辑关系,我们就会发现:

A. In many areas besides Abu Hureyra, complex factors led to new economies including the herding of domestic stock. 因果关系(led to)

B. In 'Ain Ghazal and Syria, domestic stock was more important than it was at Abu Hureyra. 比较关系(more than)

C. Once early methods of herding animals improved, new economies were adopted. 一……就,表条件(once, 相当于if)

D. Many complex theories attempt to explain the early domestication of animals. 逻辑顺承(attempt to)

 

通过浏览四个选项,我们可以发现,只有A选项句子主干的逻辑是因果关系,再来仔细比较其他部分,原句的not only…but also相当于A选项里的besides, 而原句where引导的从句内容在A选项中由including引导出。此外,complex factors, new economies, herding of domestic stock都是原句原词,所以只通过逻辑关系就可以迅速选出A答案。

 

2. 例题出自TPO 24 - 2 Breathing During Sleeping

The amount of air exchanged is even lower in REM than NREM because, although breathing is more rapid in REM, it is also more irregular, with brief episodes of shallow breathing or absence of breathing. 这句话的主干是The amount of air exchanged is even lower in REM than NREM, 内有比较关系,意思是(人睡眠在)REM时的空气交换量较少。主句后面的部分是because引导的原因状语从句,而在这个从句中本身又是复合句,嵌套了although引导的让步状语从句+主句。所以总体来看,这句话的逻辑还是因果关系,逻辑关系词是because。再来排查四个选项的逻辑:

A. Because breathing is more shallow and irregular in REM than in NREM, less air is exchanged in REM. 因果关系(Because)

B. Breathing in NREM is less effective than breathing in REM because of irregular episodes of rapid breathing during NREM. 因果关系(because of)

C. Because breathing is more rapid in NREM sleep than in REM sleep, breathing often becomes shallow. 因果关系(Because)

D. Although REM has brief episodes of shallow breathing or lack of breathing, breathing is more rapid than in NREM. 让步转折关系(Although)

 

快速浏览四个选项寻找逻辑提示词后,可以发现D选项的句子逻辑是让步转折关系(although), 直接排除。A、B、C选项的句子逻辑总体上都是因果关系(Because/because of), 这就需要进一步筛选。研究原句对于因果关系的具体展开可知,原句明显是表结果的主句较短,而表原因的从句较长。所以根据句子长短,优先看相对容易看出异同的结果The amount of air exchanged is even lower in REM than NREM, 再来比较A、B、C选项:

A. Because breathing is more shallow and irregular in REM than in NREM, less air is exchanged in REM. 结果是less air is exchanged in REM和原句结果The amount of air exchanged is even lower in REM相当于同义改写。正确。

B. Breathing in NREM is less effective than breathing in REM because of irregular episodes of rapid breathing during NREM. 结果是Breathing in NREM is less effective than breathing in REM, NREM时呼吸不及REM高效,换言之,REM时呼吸更高效,可原句比较的不是呼吸是否高效,错误。

C. Because breathing is more rapid in NREM sleep than in REM sleep, breathing often becomes shallow. 结果是breathing often becomes shallow, 这是原文考题中原因状语从句里提及的内容,也不符合,错误。

综上,正确答案为A选项,保险起见再来比较一下原因部分:

原句为because, although breathing is more rapid in REM, it is also more irregular, with brief episodes of shallow breathing or absence of breathing.

A选项的原因是Because breathing is more shallow and irregular in REM than in NREM与原句中it(指代breathing)引导的主句是同义改写:more shallow and irregular = more irregular, with brief episodes of shallow breathing. 逻辑关系、原因及结果部分都一致,完全正确。

 

3. 例题出自TPO 48 - 3 Climate and Urban Development

Studies suggest that precipitation may be greater in cities than in the surrounding countryside; this phenomenon may be due in part to the increased roughness of city terrain, brought on by large structures that cause surface air to slow and gradually converge. 这句话是由分号连接的两个句子,分号前说Studies suggest that precipitation may be greater in cities than in the surrounding countryside, 一是研究表明城市降水多于附近乡村。分号后this phenomenon may be due in part to the increased roughness of city terrain, brought on by large structures that cause surface air to slow and gradually converge. 二是这种现象部分是由于城市地形越来越高低不平,这是由高层建筑引起的,导致地表空气流动缓慢且逐渐聚集。

 

可以看出后面的内容是在解释前一句,所以该题也是因果关系,逻辑提示词是due to。但是第二句即解释部分内容也说到了内部的原因,逻辑提示词是bring on, 再往后看还有cause这样表结果的词,所以这句话中有多重因果关系。总体的逻辑链如下:

Large structures (cause surface air to slow and gradually converge)→{brought on} the increased roughness of city terrain →{due to} this phenomenon

 

分析完原句总体的因果关系后,我们再来看看选项的逻辑:

A. Until more studies are done, suggestions about the causes of precipitation in cities will focus on the roughness of terrain rather than on surface air and convergence. 做…直到某时(Until)

B. Certain phenomena of city landscapes, such as large structures, cause surface air to slow and converge, which brings a change in weather patterns to cities and rural areas. 因果关系(cause)

C. One reason why precipitation may be greater in cities than in the countryside is that large buildings that are found in cities cause surface air to slow and converge. 因果关系(reason)

D. Studies that focus on large structures, which are only partly responsible for the increased roughness of city terrain, are incomplete in their explanation of increased precipitation. 逻辑顺承关系(are)

 

浏览完四个选项后,可知只有B、C选项的总逻辑为因果关系,另两个不再赘叙。因为题目的结果部分较短,我们再来比较B、C选项的结果:

B. Certain phenomena of city landscapes, such as large structures, cause surface air to slow and converge, which brings a change in weather patterns to cities and rural areas. 结果是带来了对城市乡村天气模式的变化,不是题目里的降雨量的多少比较,错误。

C. One reason why precipitation may be greater in cities than in the countryside is that large buildings that are found in cities cause surface air to slow and converge. 结果是precipitation may be greater in cities than in the countryside和题目precipitation may be greater in cities than in the surrounding countryside是同义改写,正确。

 

四、小结

1. 遇到考察因果关系的句子简化题,优先通过选项的逻辑提示词,快速排除部分总逻辑不符的选项,再根据原句内容较短的原因/结果部分,一一比较剩余选项的相应部分。

2. 因果逻辑词

表原因:because (of), since, for, due to, result from, as a result of, lie in, 冒号

表结果:thus, hence, therefore, result in, lead to, so, so…that, bring on/about

 

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